Peter Kirby and Jeffery J. Lowder point to alternative theories to explain the historical fact of the empty grave, and propose a “relocation hypothesis.”
“1. Jesus was left hanging on the cross for the birds.
2. The Romans disposed of the body, perhaps in a limed pit.
3. The body of Jesus was buried by the Jews in some sort of criminal’s grave.
4. The body of Jesus remained buried in a (second) tomb.”
Both Lowder and apologist William Lane Craig agree that Jesus probably wasn’t left on the cross or disposed of by the Romans. Although the Romans normally wouldn’t allow the crucified criminals to be buried, they probably made occasional exceptions. Also, only two other prisoners were crucified together with Jesus, as opposed to the hundreds of cases during Roman mass crucifixion. While burial could’ve been permitted in the first case, it would’ve been out of the question in the second due to the sole intention of imposing fear. Lowder, similar to Craig makes the case that a member of Sanhedrin (Joseph of Arimathea, Mark 14:43 / Matt. 27:57 / John 19:38) “approached Pilate and requested Jesus’ body.”
Lowder rejects the third alternative, since the tight time constraint evident in the Markan story (Mark 15) wouldn’t allow for Joseph to transport Jesus’ body to the criminal’s grave before the Sabbath. The apparently surprised Mary at the grave (John 20:2) also gives a clear indication that the corpse had been moved. But Lowder choose to part way from the Gospel narrative by proposing that Joseph only used his grave as temporary storage, being forced by the Sanhedrin in accordance to The Law, until relocation to the criminal’s grave. “But why were they (the two criminals in Mark 15:27) not also deposited in the tomb with Jesus?” Craig responds, to which Lowder replies that they were probably still crucified, “even several days later.” But Lowder makes himself guilty of ad hoc reasoning by making additional suppositions, and not to mention his flat out contradiction of the eye-witness account in John 19:32 “the soldiers came and broke the leg of the first, and then of the other,” namely imposing a quick death “so that the bodies would not remain on the cross.” (John 19:31)
If Lowder’s “relocation hypothesis” was true, why didn’t Joseph and the Jewish authorities simply respond to the disciples claim by pointing to the grave: “Hey Christians, here it is, the rotting corps of your Messiah!” But they never did.
Although historian Robert Price agrees that none of the three alternatives mentioned above, nor “the traditional theft, apparent death, and wrong tomb hypothesis” are likely theories, he fails to acknowledge the obvious, most evident and most coherent theory, that the tomb was empty because Christ had risen.
In summary: To support his relocation theory, Lowder has to add conditions and contradict the plain text. It also seems unlikely that the Jewish authorities remained silent about the whereabouts of Jesus body in face of Christianity growing.
 Peter Kirby, ”The Case Against the Empty Tomb,” in Robert Price, Jeffery Jay Lowder, The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave, (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2005), Kindle location 3206.
 Jeffery Jay Lowder, ”Historical Evidence and the Empty Tomb Story: A Reply to William Lane Craig, in Price & Lowder, The Empty Tomb: Jesus Beyond the Grave, (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2005), Kindle location 3620.
 Jeffery J. Lowder, Kindle location 3643.
 Ibid., Kindle location 3676.
 Ibid., Kindle locations 3685.
 William Lane Craig, Assessing the New Testament Evidence for the Historicity of the Resurrection of Jesus (Lewinston, NY: Edwin Mellon, 1989) p. 175.
 Jeffery J. Lowder, Kindle location 3693.
 Jeffery J. Lowder, Kindle location 3774.